RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT
“Paramount” Limited runs a state of Laboratory and Research and Development Facility at its Head Office.
The facility is recognized by the Science and Technology Department of Government of India, Central Pollution Control Board, New Delhi and many other state pollution control boards.
The facility acts as a fulcrum to provide the following services in water and wastewater treatment industries and air pollution control. The services include conducting:
1 Project Design and Development
A. Feasibility Study
B. Treatability Study
C. Water Analysis
2 Plant Support
A. Operation and Maintenance
B. Plant operation and Optimization
C. Plant adequacy Studies
D. Process Performance Audit
E. Air Pollution & Stack Monitoring
F. Environmental Audit
1 Project Design and Development
A. Feasibility Study:
A feasibility study is performed before any project is undertaken. The feasibility study covers the following areas:
1 To elucidate if certain effluent treatment step is viable
2 To ensure that the treatment approach is an economic model
B. Treatability Study:
With different types of industrial applications in the modern world, so do the differences in the effluent generated by each industrial application. There is always no one stroke application in the treatment methodology that is adapted in standard waste water treatment units like that in a Refinery or a petrochemical industry. Even within these industries, the type of raw materials has demanded new processing technologies and generate a new type of effluent. This calls for in-depth study in the treatment philosophy of the particular effluent and its adaptability with other effluents. This requires Treatability Studies be conducted.
Treatability Studies are conducted to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment philosophy on a specific type of Wastewater.
The normal approach is to collect the samples from the sources, its characterization, elucidate the pre-treatment (chemical treatment) methodology, requirement of biological treatment and the tertiary treatment philosophy. Selection of Membrane technology forms a unique approach in Tertiary Treatment philosophies.
The R&D facility at Vadodara is capable of conducting anaerobic and aerobic treatabilities, the best application of membrane technologies.
Facilities are also available to do Treatability Study on a Bench top scale and Pilot plant scale.
Bench top studies offer
• An initial view of the process, using lab pot spot pretreatment steps.
• Analytical work is carried out on raw samples and characterization mapped
• A complete treatment philosophy is formulated based on the raw sample character
• A model is created to check the sustainability of the treatment step on a longer time scale with batch effluent feeding model and continuous effluent acclimatization model. A process design based on the Treatment methodology is formulated. The study is carried out at low cost.
• The Treatability Report is presented to the owner for consideration for further study on a pilot plant scale or scales up to project model.
Pilot plant Treatability model is the next step. The pilot plant studies are made if the effluent characteristics are susceptible to changes or if the loads are largely intermittent. Pilot plant studies are also conducted if the application is large wherein the scale up of bench top treatability study to plant scale can create certain inconsistency in routine operation.
Paramount Limited has all facilities to model and fabricate pilot plants that can be shipped to owner’s site to conduct tests.
“Paramount” also conducts Oxygen Transfer Efficiency (OTE) tests allow plant owners to assess the long term running costs of their aeration systems, and confirm that they have the capacity to meet peak oxygen demands.
Tests can be conducted on a wide range of aeration devices including fine bubble diffused aeration systems, coarse bubble aeration systems, surface aerators, jet aeration systems and venturi style aeration systems.
The test procedure involves measuring dissolved oxygen from near zero to saturation against time, and non linear regression is used to determine the mass transfer coefficient. To achieve near zero dissolved oxygen concentration, the test water is deoxygenated using either nitrogen gas or sodium sulphite, dependent on aeration system type and the practicality of a particular method. The power consumption of the aeration devices is monitored using power monitoring equipment suitable for systems equipped with variable speed drives. It is common to test aeration systems at several duty points to determine the efficiency over the whole operational range of a particular system.
The data provided by these tests includes SOTR (Standard Oxygen Transfer Rate measured in kgO2/hr), SOTE (Standard Oxygen Transfer Efficiency measured as a percentage of the air put into the system) and SAE (Standard Aeration Efficiency measured in kgO2/kWh).
C. Water Analysis:
The laboratory in Paramount’s R&D facility is equipped with all latest effluent characterization equipment and a fine Instrument laboratory to conduct elemental analysis also.
Paramount Ltd. offers a routine analytical service for the analysis of wastewater samples. The laboratory also accepts samples for analysis of the effluent characteristics.
The basic analysis that is undertaken is as below.
|Carbonates (as CO3)
|Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD)
|Chlorides (as Cl)
|Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) (3 Days at 27 0C)
|Conductivity (u mho/ cm)
|Oil and grease
|Total Suspended Solids (TSS)
|MLSS / MLVSS / SVI
|Total Dissolved Solids (TDS)
|Dissolve Oxygen (DO) (as O2)
|Total Solids (TS)
|Phosphate (Ortho) (as P)
|Silica (reactive) (as SiO2)
|Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR)
|Total Hardness (as CaCO3)
|Sulphate (as SO4)
|Ammonical Nitrogen (NH3-N)
|Sulphide (as S)
|Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)
|Total Iron (as Fe)
|Nitrate Nitrogen (NO3-N)
|Total Phosphate (as P)
|Nitrite Nitrogen (NO2-N)
|Total Volatile Solids
|Residual Chlorine (Cl2)
|Acidity (P or MO)
|Alkalinity (P or MO)
|Magnesium (as Mg)
|Fluoride (as F)
|Dissolved Iron (as Fe)
|Potassium (as K)
|Bicarbonates (as HCO3)
|Sodium (as Na)
2 Plant Support
A. Operation and Maintenance:
Paramount Limited has a team of highly experienced and skilled engineers and technicians in assisting and also independently work on Operation and Maintenance of Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants.
B. Plant Operation and Optimization:
Paramount Limited through its R & D division offers services on plant operation, optimization and trouble shooting.
Assessing what the plant is capable of achieving and then optimizing the system to maintain consistent operating parameters, whether that is limits imposed on BOD, COD, suspended solids or ammonia etc.
Optimization of operational steps, study the functionality of dosing chemicals and realize an optimized pattern for dosages to cut operational costs are also undertaken.
“Paramount” also provides Plant Operation support in water and wastewater Treatment Plants. The services are specific to previously commissioned and operating plants.
Support can be in the form of a regular on-site service with support staff having access to laboratory equipment capable of assessing:
• COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand)
• BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand)
• Suspended Solids
• Oil and grease
• Dissolved Oxygen (DO)
• MLSS, MLVSS
• Methane, CO2, Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) and Oxygen as a % or ppm
The above list is only part of our laboratory capability. If parameters outside those mentioned are required please do not hesitate to contact us.
Often operators do not require such an extensive service but are more comfortable having access to operational support from a distance.
Paramount Limited will often combine onsite support with off-site data assessment, providing advice from our offices to ensure plant operation is maintained.
C. Plant Adequacy Test:
Adequacy Studies on existing systems are conducted to establish if the present facility is adequate to treat additional effluent load to the system and also recommending various steps to upgrade units to create sufficiency in the system to treat additional effluent loads.
The R&D division of Paramount Limited has been a dependable partner in conducting Adequacy Study on Water and Wastewater systems and have a team of experienced and highly skilled engineers and technicians for such activities.
The study comprises checks on the following.
• Inspecting the existing facilities and studying the operation of the same at designed load conditions. Samplings conducted to verify the performance.
• Source study on the effluents is made to check if any pre-treatment methodology will be required to take additional loads
• Studies on new effluents that are to be generated are conducted. If pilot trials are in progress, effluent samples are collected and treatability checked with that prevailing in the existing model
• A final report with work sheets, checks and balances and recommendations on upgradations, if required are enumerated and submitted for Owners consideration.
D. Process Performance Audit:
Paramount Limited also provides services on process performance audits on Water and Wastewater treatment plants to evaluate the performance of process units and unit operations.
A team of skilled engineers and technicians study the plant operation and conduct capacity test and sampling of inlet and outlet water/ effluent streams. The samples are taken for detailed analysis.
The final audit report with the worksheets is submitted to the Owner for their further actions.
Dissolved Oxygen (DO) profiling is an important first step into identifying means of improving the energy efficiency of an aeration system.
Dissolved oxygen profiling is conducted in activated sludge plants for a number of potential reasons. Common reasons are to determine aeration dead spots in aeration lanes, back flow of aerated liquor into anoxic zones and the efficiency of tapered aeration systems. Profiles are either conducted over the course of a day, or data can be logged over a period of several days.
Activated sludge plant energy efficiency surveys data log the power consumption of the aeration device over a predetermined period, typically one week. During this period, composite samples are taken of the influent to determine organic loading of the Activated Sludge Plant, and also of the final effluent to determine the level of treatment the system is achieving. Nitrification is also taken into consideration as is nitrate recovery in any anoxic zones.
From this information, the theoretical oxygen demand is calculated for the organic load treated which is then related to the power used by the aeration device to give an in process aeration efficiency measured in kgO2/kWh.
E. Air Pollution and Stack Monitoring:
The laboratory also conducts periodic monitoring of ambient air and stack based on customer requirement. The basic analysis that is conducted is as follow.
1 Suspended Particulate matter
4 Sulphur dioxide
5 Oxides of Nitrogen
6 Carbon monoxide and dioxide
8 Flue gas Flow rate in stack
F. Environmental Audit:
R & D division of “Paramount” Limited is a recognized Environmental Auditor by the Gujarat Pollution Control Board.
The audit is conducted on industries based on the facilities falling in Schedule I and II of the Hon’ble High Court Order dated 13March 1997 and as per the GPCB directions issued from time to time.
The audit is conducted in three seasons with at least three sets of samples of effluents (Air + Wastewater + Solid/ Hazardous waste) from all discharge points. The analysis of the effluents are done as per standard methods and enumerated in the Report.
The audit also comprises the checks on the following.
• Analysis of effluent from all discharge points as per standards
• Inconsistency or deviation practices by industry and that are contrary to the directives
• Details on raw materials, products and by-product and the audit on excise registers and production related documents
• Audit on compliance to pollution board
• Variations in utility and raw material consumption and production from that registered the previous year
• Analytical Quality Control (AQC) methodology adopted
• Check on clean technology usage
• Treatment and disposal of spent caustic wastes
• Membership of industry attached to CETP & TSDF
The audit findings are mentioned in the Environmental Audit Reports and submitted as per the directives.