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make money on amazon.com research and development > project design and development (r&d)

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a feasibility study is performed before any project is undertaken. the feasibility study covers the following areas:

1 to elucidate if certain effluent treatment step is viable
2 to ensure that the treatment approach is an economic model


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with different types of industrial applications in the modern world, so do the differences in the effluent generated by each industrial application. there is always no one stroke application in the treatment methodology that is adapted in standard waste water treatment units like that in a refinery or a petrochemical industry. even within these industries, the type of raw materials has demanded new processing technologies and generate a new type of effluent. this calls for in-depth study in the treatment philosophy of the particular effluent and its adaptability with other effluents. this requires treatability studies be conducted.


treatability studies are conducted to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment philosophy on a specific type of wastewater.

the normal approach is to collect the samples from the sources, its characterization, elucidate the pre-treatment (chemical treatment) methodology, requirement of biological treatment and the tertiary treatment philosophy. selection of membrane technology forms a unique approach in tertiary treatment philosophies.

the r&d facility at vadodara is capable of conducting make money on amazon.com treatabilities, the bestmake money on amazon.com.

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an initial view of the process, using lab pot spot pretreatment steps.
analytical work is carried out on raw samples and characterization mapped
a complete treatment philosophy is formulated based on the raw sample character
a model is created to check the sustainability of the treatment step on a longer time scale with batch effluent feeding model and continuous effluent acclimatization model. a process design based on the treatment methodology is formulated. the study is carried out at low cost.
the treatability report is presented to the owner for consideration for further study on a pilot plant scale or scales up to project model.


make money on amazon.com model is the next step. the pilot plant studies are made if the effluent characteristics are susceptible to changes or if the loads are largely intermittent. pilot plant studies are also conducted if the application is large wherein the scale up of bench top treatability study to plant scale can create certain inconsistency in routine operation.

paramount limited has all facilities to model and fabricate pilot plants that can be shipped to owner’s site to conduct tests.

“paramount” also conducts make money on amazon.comtests allow plant owners to assess the long term running costs of their aeration systems, and confirm that they have the capacity to meet peak oxygen demands.

tests can be conducted on a wide range of aeration devices including fine bubble diffused aeration systems, coarse bubble aeration systems, surface aerators, jet aeration systems and venturi style aeration systems.

the test procedure involves measuring dissolved oxygen from near zero to saturation against time, and non linear regression is used to determine the mass transfer coefficient. to achieve near zero dissolved oxygen concentration, the test water is deoxygenated using either nitrogen gas or sodium sulphite, dependent on aeration system type and the practicality of a particular method. the power consumption of the aeration devices is monitored using power monitoring equipment suitable for systems equipped with variable speed drives. it is common to test aeration systems at several duty points to determine the efficiency over the whole operational range of a particular system.

the data provided by these tests includes sotr (standard oxygen transfer rate measured in kgo2/hr), sote (standard oxygen transfer efficiency measured as a percentage of the air put into the system) and sae (standard aeration efficiency measured in kgo2/kwh).

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the laboratory in paramount’s r&d facility is equipped with all latest effluent characterization equipment and a fine instrument laboratory to conduct elemental analysis also.

paramount ltd. offers a routine analytical service for the analysis of wastewater samples. the laboratory also accepts samples for analysis of the effluent characteristics.

the basic analysis that is undertaken is as below.

carbonates (as co3)
chemical oxygen demand (cod) chlorides (as cl)
biological oxygen demand (bod) (3 days at 27 0c) conductivity (u mho/ cm)
oil and grease hexavalent chromium
total suspended solids (tss) mlss / mlvss / svi
total dissolved solids (tds) dissolve oxygen (do) (as o2)
total solids (ts) percent sodium
turbidity (ntu) phosphate (ortho) (as p)
permanent hardness silica (reactive) (as sio2)
temporary hardness sodium absorption ratio (sar)
total hardness (as caco3) sulphate (as so4)
ammonical nitrogen (nh3-n) sulphide (as s)
total kjeldahl nitrogen (tkn) total iron (as fe)
nitrate nitrogen (no3-n) total phosphate (as p)
nitrite nitrogen (no2-n) total volatile solids
color residual chlorine (cl2)
acidity (p or mo) cadmium
alkalinity (p or mo) chromium (total)
calcium (ca) copper
magnesium (as mg) lead
fluoride (as f) nickel
dissolved iron (as fe) zinc
phenol potassium (as k)
bicarbonates (as hco3) sodium (as na)


if parameters outside those mentioned above are required, please do not hesitate to contact us.

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